Pages

Tuesday, October 25, 2011

Salvation Jane (Patterson's Curse)

Alas there were no fields of Salvation Jane as there has been too much moisture about and all the canola fields are only about knee heighth and mainly green with just a smidgin of a few yellow flowere appearing. Nevermind - we are going up to The Camp in a few weeks and no doubt the fields around Boorowa and Cowra will be a sea of yellow. In the meantime here is some information about 'Salvation jane. or, Patterson's Curse - depending upon your view of the vegetation.


Echium plantagineum in Australia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A field of Echium plantagineum in Victoria, Australia. Patterson's Curse (Echium plantagineum or Purple Viper's Bugloss) is an invasive plant species in Australia.
 
Salvation Jane (particular reference in South Australia) is also known as Paterson's Curse. Other names are Blueweed, Lady Campbell Weed or Riverina Bluebell. The name Salvation Jane comes from South Australia. In times of drought, many of the states grazing pastures died. Due to its drought hardiness, Echium was a source of food to the grazing animals in the state, hence the name Salvation Jane.


Three other Echium species have been introduced and are of concern; Viper's Bugloss (Echium vulgare) is the most common of them. Viper's Bugloss is biennial, with a single unbranched flowering stem and smaller, more blue flowers, but is otherwise similar. This species is also useful for honey production.

Paterson's Curse has positive uses — it is the source for a particularly fine grade of honey. As a fodder plant, with proper handling, it can be valuable fodder over summer for cattle and sheep, but not livestock without ruminant digestive systems.

History
In the 1880s it was introduced to Australia, probably both as an accidental contaminate of pasture seed and as an ornamental plant. It is said that both names for the plant derive from Jane Paterson or Patterson, an early settler of the country near Albury. She brought the first seeds from Europe to beautify a garden, and then could only watch helplessly as the weed infested previously productive pastures for many miles around.

Paterson's Curse is now a dominant broadleaf pasture weed through much of New South Wales, the Australian Capital Territory, Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania and also infests native grasslands, heathlands and woodlands.

Description
Echium plantagineum flowers in spring growing adjacent to the freeway at South Australia

Appearance
The plant has hairy, dark green, broadly oval rosette leaves to 30 cm long. The several seeding stems grow to 120 cm in height and develop branches with age. Flowers develop in clusters; they are purple, tubular and 2–3 cm long with 5 petals. It has a fleshy taproot with smaller laterals.

Growth
Although generally an autumn germinating spring-flowering annual, Paterson's Curse has become highly adaptable to Australian erratic rainfall evens and, given suitable rainfall, some plants germinate at any time of year, but the plant never survives for more than one year. It is a very prolific seed producer; heavy infestations can yield up to 30,000 seeds per square metre. Paterson's Curse can germinate under a wide variety of temperature conditions, tolerates dry periods well and responds vigorously to fertiliser. If cut by a lawnmower, it quickly recovers and sends out new shoots and flowers.

The plant disperses by movement of seeds — on the wool or fur of animals, the alimentary tracts of grazing animals or birds, movement in water and most importantly as a contaminant of hay or grain. This is most noticeable in times of drought, when there is considerable movement of fodder and livestock.

It can rapidly establish a large population on disturbed ground and competes vigorously with both smaller plants and the seedlings of regenerating overstorey species. Its spread has been greatly aided by human-induced habitat degradation, particularly the removal of perennial grasses through overgrazing by sheep and cattle and the introduction of the rabbit. Paterson's Curse is rarely able to establish itself in habitats where the native vegetation is healthy and undisturbed.

Control Methods:

1. Chemical

Control of the plant is carried out by hand (for small infestations) or with any of a variety of herbicides, and must be continued over many years to reduce the seedbank. (Most seeds germinate in the first year, but some survive for as long as five years before germinating.) In the longer term, perennial grasses (which do not need to regenerate from seed each year) can out-compete Patterson's Curse, and any increase in perennial cover produces a direct decrease in Paterson's Curse. However, the annual cost in control measures and lost production in Australia was estimated (in a 1985 study by the Industries Assistance Commission) to be over $30 million, compared to $2 million per year in benefits.

2. Biological
The Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) has carried out research on numerous classical biological control solutions, and of the 100-odd insects found feeding on Paterson's Curse in the Mediterranean, judged six safe to release in Australia without endangering crops or native plants. The leaf-mining moth Dialectica scalariella the crown weevil Mogulones larvatus, root weevil Mogulones geographicus and the flea beetle Longitarsus echii are now currently widely distributed in southern Australia and can be found easily on most large Paterson's curse plants encountered. The crown weevil and flea beetle are proving highly effective. While the CSIRO is cautiously optimistic, it is expected that biological control agents will take many years to be fully effective. The most recent economic analysis however, suggests that biological control has already brought nearly $1.2 B in benefits to Australia by reducing the amount of Paterson's curse the pasture. The investment of funding to research into biological of Paterson's curse has already reaped a benefit cost ratio of 52:1

Toxicity
Echium plantagineum contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids and is poisonous. When eaten in large quantities, it cause reduced livestock weight or even (in severe cases) death. Paterson's Curse can kill horses and irritate the udders of dairy cows and the skin of humans. After the 2003 Canberra bushfires over 40 recorded horses were put down after eating the weed.



3 comments:

John Gray said...

I loved this post
Gawd I learn loads here!

Sharon said...

All because some lady wanted some flowers for her garden......... They are pretty but... that's quite a lot of money to try to get rid of it!

Gill - That British Woman said...

we have one over here called purple loosestrife and it is a major problem like yours: http://extension.entm.purdue.edu/caps/pestInfo/purpLoosestrife.htm

It looks a little different to your plant.

Very intersting though to learn about your plant.

Gill in Canada